A framework for road change detection and map updating

Examples of climate change include increases in global surface temperature (global warming), changes in rainfall patterns, and changes in the frequency of extreme weather events.Changes in climate may be due to natural causes, e.g., changes in the sun's output, or due to human activities, e.g., changing the composition of the atmosphere.The effects of global warming are the environmental and social changes caused (directly or indirectly) by human emissions of greenhouse gases.There is a scientific consensus that climate change is occurring, and that human activities are the primary driver.

Assuming high growth in greenhouse gas emissions (SRES A2), some models projected that Arctic sea ice in the summer could largely disappear by the end of the 21st century.A rise in temperature will cause the glaciers to melt, when water heats up, it expands, both of these factors contribute to a rise in sea levels which will put people living in lowland areas, for example The Netherlands in danger.A map that shows ice concentration on 16 September 2012, along with the extent of the previous record low (yellow line) and the mid-September median extent (black line) setting a new record low that was 18 percent smaller than the previous record and nearly 50 percent smaller than the long-term (1979–2000) average.Each of the different colored lines in each panel represents an independently analyzed set of data.The data come from many different technologies including weather stations, satellites, weather balloons, ships and buoys.

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