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Perhaps their roots go back to the old miner books, mining permits, or registry books. ]: “Little can be recognized today under the thick moss cover.
In the nearby Forks, as foresters and forest workers assure us, one can find indecipherable signs hewn in rock, among them the renditions of a knife and fork.” Mosch’s sources were telling the truth.
We know from Karl Schneider’s research that all the older Weal Books, concerned with the Giant and Wolf Mountains, whose authors purport to be Italians or South or Middle Germans, were written in Silesia. Signs on trees and rocks, marking paths leading to finds, play an important role in the Weal Books.
How they came to be distributed among the population hasn’t been explained yet. Georg Anton Volkmann mentions [in Silesia Subterranea] that in the Giant Mountains one “from time to time finds all kinds of markings and drawings of human faces, hands, discs, knives, pickaxes, and crosses.” In his 1855 Die alten heidnischen Opferstätten und Steinalterthümer des Riesengebirges [Old pagan sacrifice sites and rock altars in the Giant Mountains], Mosch mentions “strange signs and figures” found by forest workers in the area of the Rothfloßfelsen [Czerwone Skałki on Czarna Góra] or the Mitternachts-Feueresse [Krzywe Baszty?
Another subject fitting the pattern of Weal stories is Leonhard Thurnheysser zum Thurn, an Italian doctor and alchemist, an expert on these mountains. Boehlich, he prospected in the Giant and Wolf Mountains in the 1560s, searching for gold and precious stones.
His findings sound like a summary of the finds mentioned in the Weal Books.
The following is a retranslation into English of a German-to-Polish translation by Tomasz Pryll of an article from a 1929 issue of Der Wanderer im Riesenbegirge. In the Alps and the German Central Uplands (Středohoří, Mittelgebirge), one can hear very odd legends, according to which, mysterious strangers from Italy professionally and expertly extricated treasures from the mountains, and by using magic incantations, secretly sent them to their country in the south.
These Italian prospectors for gold and precious stones are commonly known as the Venetians [Venediger], whereas in the Fichtel Mountains (Fichtelgebirge), the Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge) as well as the Giant Mountains [Riesengebirge, Karkonosze] and the Wolf Mountains [Isergebirge, Góry Izerskie] they are called the Weals ([Welsche]).
Around 1601, people collected reddish lumps of iron from the river Kamienna [Zacken] near the glassworks in the hope of finding gold, but to no avail.Through the landmarks mentioned: the Black Mountain, the White Valley, the Forks [Widły, a.k.a.the Weal Stone, Waloński Kamień], and the Evening Castle, we can trace back the areas visited by the gold and precious stone prospectors.As early as 1588 Simon Hüttel, the chronicler of Trutenau (Trutnov), saw Weal signs in the Giant Mountains when, with three companions, he was trying to identify former gold mines in Pfaffenwald: “We found numerous shafts, crosses, and signs, as well as a beech tree with the date (year) MD2  carved in its bark, and next to it a large hand, pointing to the east, carved in a fir tree; there is also a sign there of a hammer and pickaxe.” It is quite likely that these signs can be traced back to the Meisen miners who in 1511 “began boring through rock in Hoppenberg (Šibeniční vrch)” near Trutnov a “shaft that was later called a gold mine.” Thus the Weals emerge from the deep shadow of legends and folk tales and begin to function as historical figures.In 1563 a man from Italy is trekking through the mountains.