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As such, the logical first step to assessing the security of the TEEs would be to get a foothold within the TEE itself.To do so, we’ll need to find a vulnerability in a trusted application and exploit it to gain code execution.While this may sound like a daunting task, remember that trusted applications are merely pieces of software that process user-supplied data.These applications aren’t written in memory safe languages, and are executed within opaque environments - a property which usually doesn’t lend itself well to security.These Trust Zone-based TEEs are proprietary components and are provided by the device’s manufacturers.To put it in context - what we normally refer to as “Android” in our day to day lives is merely the code running in the “Normal World”; the Linux Kernel running at EL1 and the user-mode applications running at EL0.These operating systems run alongside Android and provide several key features to it.These features include access to biometric sensors, hardware-bound cryptographic operations, a “Since the “Secure World”’s implementation is closely tied to the hardware of the device and the available security mechanisms on the So C, the TEE OSs require support from and integration with the earlier parts of the device’s bootchain, as well as low-level components such as the bootloader.

We’ll see how, despite their highly sensitive vantage point, these operating systems currently lag behind modern operating systems in terms of security mitigations and practices.

Lastly, as can be seen in the schematic above, in order for the “Normal World” to be able to interact with the TEE and the applications within it, the authors of the TEE must also provide user-libraries, daemons and kernel drivers for the “Normal World”.

These components are then utilised by the “Normal World” in order to communicate with the TEE.

What’s more, in a recent positive trend of increased transparency, Qualcomm has Now that we’ve acquired the tools needed to inspect the trusted applications, we can proceed on to the next step - acquiring the trustlet images (from a firmware image or from the device), converting them to a standard format, and loading them up in a disassembler.

To allow for increased flexibility, modern TEEs are designed to be modular, rather than monolithic chunks of code.

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