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Mosul should not be confused with the ancient Assyrian capital of Nineveh, which is located across the Tigris from Mosul on the eastern bank, at the famed archaeological mound of Kuyunjik (Turkoman for "sheep's hill").This area is known today as the town of Nebi Yunus ("prophet Jonah") and is now populated largely by Kurds.

While some residents returned, more fled in 2015 as fighting and violence increased, and US bombings pounded the city.

Nineveh is mentioned in the Old Assyrian Empire (2025–1750), and during the reign of Shamshi-Adad I (1809–1776 BC) it is listed as a centre of worship of the goddess Ishtar, and it remained as such during the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1056 BC).

During the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–605 BC) Nineveh grew in size and importance, particularly from the reigns of Tukulti-Ninurta II and Ashurnasirpal II (883–859 BC) onward, however he chose the city of Kalhu (the Biblical Calah, modern Nimrud) as his capital in place of the ancient traditional capital of Aššur (Ashur), 30 km (19 mi) from present day Mosul.

It is the only fully-Kurdish neighborhood in Mosul.

The site contains the tomb of the Biblical Jonah, as he lived and died in the then capital of ancient Assyria.

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